In response to structural changes affecting art and design colleges and universities, such as the influences of the Bologna Process, ecological design standards, global market failures, and the expansion of higher terminal degree opportunities, institutions are faced with the need to adapt to changing economic conditions and moral economies both within and without.

“Just as a bacillus modifies the body, so too are the sensibility and nervous system of the artist modified by novel visual elements introduced into the world by new technical and social developments.” Inspired by the early twentieth century words of Kazimir Malevich, Boris Groys asserts that “[A]rtists need to modify the immune system of their art in order to incorporate new aesthetic bacilli, to survive them and find a new inner balance, a new definition of health.” (Steven H. Madoff, ed. Art School : Propositions for the 21st Century [Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2009], 28)



Bologna Declaration


Bologna beyond 2010

From the Report on the development of the European Higher Education Area Background Paper for the Bologna Follow-up Group (prepared by the Benelux Bologna Secretariat Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Ministerial Conference, 28-29 April 2009)



Elkins, James. “Theoretical Remarks on Combined Creative and Scholarly PhD Degrees in the Visual Arts.” The Journal of Aesthetic Education 38 (2004): 22-31.

“The imminence of PhDs in visual arts make their theorization pressing. In Australia and the UK, where the degrees already exist, their growth has been largely dictated by the existing educational structures and by the quest for funding. In contrast, private universities and art schools in the US are well positioned to rethink the conceptual foundations of combined studio and scholarly PhDs. The writer goes on to propose eight configurations that such PhDs might take…” (abridged abstract)



Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art., New York Academy of Art. A Curriculum for Artists. Oxford: Published by the Laboratory at the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art  University of Oxford  and the New York Academy of Art, 2004.

“The book presents and comments on the findings of a study jointly conceived and designed by Bonaventura and Farthing to explore the degree to which the curriculum in art schools has responded to changes in the art world over the past twenty years. The research question was: Are we adequately preparing artists for the art world as they will find it?” (abridged abstract)



Silk, Janet. “The Pedagogy of Failure in the Global Market.” International Journal of Art & Design Education 30, no. 1 (February 2011): 45-51.

“An American artist and art educator discusses her experience teaching at the American University in Cairo, Egypt (AUC). Students are confronted by local and international discourse about authenticity, integrity and influence. They express their frustration and anxiety about their chances for success in the global art market…” (abridged abstract)



Yannick Joye. “Biophilic Design Aesthetics in Art and Design Education.” The Journal of Aesthetic Education 45, no. 2 (2011): 17-35.

“…The writer goes on to explain the basic design principles of biophilic design; demonstrate that biophilic design education is crucial for progressing to a mature biophilic design practice; argue that biophilic design education transcends the strict pedagogical level and show that this type of education can have a creative, ecological, and restorative significance; and philosophically discuss the implications of biophilic design’s “genetic” commitments.” (abridged abstract)